The Tanolis are a prominent and famous Muslim pashtoon tribe residing mainly in the district Mansehra & Abbottabad, Hazara division of NWFP Pakistan. They have a history that spans to the early 13th century since the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate. They have ruled the state of Amb of Hazara since the 13th century up until the wars with the Sikhs in the 19th century. They were frequently engaged in rebellions with successive rulers of the Delhi Sultanate as well as allying with Ahmed Shah Abdali in his conquest of India.
Charles Allen in his book referred to them as "the extremely hostile and powerful Tanolis of the Tanawal Moutains".
They were also the last ruling dynasty of the State of Amb.

"Many Mouths, Many sayings" Many people tried to link the tanoli with their own tribe or another one else. but it's clear and accepted from the history.
Tanoli are not Jungua.
Tanoli can't be Mughals.
Tanoli are not Rajas.
Tanoli are not Abbasi.
Tanoli did't come with Greek Alaxander.

Tanoli migrated from
 Tonbol Pass or Taanal Pass to the Gardeez and Ghazni (Cities of Afghanistan) in 1100 AD. In 950 AD when Sultan Amir Sabuktigin invaded on Hindustan, Tanoli tribe came with his army and resided in the valley of Swat and Buner. Anwar Khan Tanoli was appointed as head or cheif of the tribe by Sultan Amir Sabuktigin.

In 1400 Tanoli tribe was prominent alliance of Ahamed Shah Abdali, Tanoli fought the battle of Pani Pat aginst Marrata. The Cheif, Zaberdast Khan Tanoli gained the title of Suba Khan from Ahmed Shah Abdale because of his bravery and boldness in the battle of Pani Pat.

Tanoli Cheif Ameer Khan martyred in battle aginst Yousfzai trib. Yousfzai occupied the area of swat and buner and compled the tanoli tribe to the estern bank of indus river.

They established the state of Amb and ruled sice 1973. They are also Khans of many villages namly Sherwan, Khotaila, Pind Kargu Khan, Kripplian, Chaamid, Shingree, Kokal, Gaajul etc of district Manshera, Abbottabad and Haripur. Some Tanoli families are still in Swat and Mingora. Few "Khails of Tanoli" are also sattled in Balochistan, Sindh and Punjab. The genesis of tanoli leads to the Prophet Hazrat Yaqoob (Halesalam), from this reference they are pashton.
Tanoli has great contribution in Tehreek-e-Pakistan & Tehmeer-e-Pakistan. They always vote & support the Muslim League being a loyal pakistani. They have also major role in the development of country, they scrified their homes and native lands for the development of country in the form of Terbela Dam.
Origins and History
Tanolis are generally divided into two groups, the Hindwal Tanolis and the Pulwal Tanolis. The Hindwal Tanolis/Tanawli were well known for ruling their state of Amb until the 19th century wars with the Sikhs. But later relations between them improved. The Tanolis entered the North-West Frontier Province history from the early 13th century when.
The Tanoli are a tribe of the Tanawal valley region in the Hazara region of Pakistan's North-West Frontier Province and Afghanistan
Although "not usually acknowledged as Pathans, the Tanoli have by long association become assimilated with them in manners, customs, and character."The tribal and cultural practices of the Tanolis closely resemble those of the Pathans". Tribally allied with the Pathans, the Tanoli participated in the frontier wars with the British and in Charles Allen's analysis of those wars, the Tanoli are described as being "extremely hostile" and "brave and hardy and accounted for the best swordsmen in Hazara.
The Tanoli are also known as Tanawal, for the name of the river. The British Census included several variant forms of the name: Taniwal Tanole Tanaoli, Tanol, Tol, Tholi, Tahoa, Tarnoli,Tanis,Tanai.
The Tanoli were first encountered by Westerners around 1700 "in the trans Indus basin of the Mahaban from which they were driven across the Indus by the Yusufzai" tribe. By the late 19th century the Tanaoli had settled the Tanawal tract in the west center of the district between Abbottabad and the Indus, and in the extensive hill country between the river and the Urash plains.
According to the Settlement Report of Hazara, compiled by Major Wace (1872), the Tanolis, who founded a state named Amb, had already established their authority over Tanawal. The voluminous Urdu copy of the settlement report of Hazara contains many passages in its historical resume of the area. In a number of maps drawn at the time and enclosed in the report, showing Hazara under the Mughals and under the Durranis, the Amb state has been shown as Mulk-i-Tanawal. The original existence of that Mulk is as old as the middle period of the great Afghan invasions of India.
The Tanoli are divided into two major sub-tribes: the Hindwal and the Pallal. The latter occupies the northern portion of the Tanawal tract, and, until the dissolution of the princely states in 1968, constituted the semi-independent principality of Amb.
According to Tanoli tradition (preserved in a commentary based on an 1881/1891 census report) they are named after a place in "Afghanistan" (not to be confused with the present-day state of Afghanistan)
Apical ancestor,
As is also the case for all other ethnic groups of the region, tracing their lineage to an apical ancestor is crucial to the Tanoli's sense of identity.
The Tanoli consider themselves to descend from one Amir Khan, a Barlas Mughal who (so says their tradition) arrived in the Tanawal valley with his sons around 1500, having crossed the Indus river to get there.
The details of this tradition?as preserved in the Tarikh-i-Tanaolian ("History of Tanolies")?runs as follows: Upon defeating a Hindu king Jaipala, one Sultan Sabuktagin conquered the region up to Attock on the Indus. The victor then resettled five thousand Mughals, Syeds and Afghans in Swat where Din Khan Mughal, an Anawar, was appointed the ruler. The ancestors of the Tanoli eventually settled in Mahaban. Some time later, in search of land, they crossed the Indus river under the command of Maulvi Mohammad Ibrahim, and captured territory from the Turkic peoples settled there. Among the new settlers was Amir Khan Beerdewa and his six sons (Pall Khan, Hind Khan, Thakar Khan, Arjin Khan and Kul Khan) who settled the Tanawal region; the six clans or sub-tribes are allegedly named after the six sons of Beerdewa.
This claim of descent of Tanolis is also mentioned in The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register for British and Foreign India, China, and Australia (1841), in the following words; "There is one chief who, though not an Eusofzye, yet from his position in the midst of, and intimate connection with, the Eusofzyes, and his singular history and character, must not be omitted in a description of the Eusofzye country. Paieendah Khan, of Tanawul, is a Mogul of the Birlas tribe, the same from which the Ameer Timoor was descended. All record of the first settlement in Tanawul of his family is lost, and it has long ago broken off all connection with the other branches of the Birlas, which are still to be found in Turkestan."
The Imperial Gazetteer of India also confirms this line of descent; it states, "Its (Tanawul's) real rulers, however, were the Tanawalis, a tribe of Mughal descent divided into two septs, the Pul-al and Hando-al or Hind-wal."
The Sikh records of the region also confirm this line of descent of the Tanolis. They state, "The family of Paeendah Khan is a branch of the Birlas, a Mogul House, well known in history. All record of its first settlement in Tanawul is lost. It may perhaps have been left there by the Emperor Baber. Among the list of whose nobles, the name Birlas is found."
Some historians have mentioned the Pathan origin of the tanoli family of the Nawab of Amb. In 'The Golden Book of India', Sir Roper Lethbridge on page 328 states about Nawab Muhammad Akram Khan, Sir, K.C.S.I The Nawab Bahadur is Chief of Amb, on the right bank of the Indus, where he and his ancestors have long been independent. Belongs to a Pathan (Muhammadan) family....
Another authoritative source, namely 'Selections from the Records of the Government of India, Foreign Department'(1856), states about the Tanolis; "It (Tannawal) is inhabited chiefly by the Turnoulees, a Tribe of martial Puthans."

The commentary to the 1881/1891 census narrates this tradition but it observes that "[however,] there can be little doubt that they are of [Indo-Iranian or Indo-European origin] and probably of Indian stock."

Some sources relate the Tanoli tribe to the Janjua Rajputs. They believe the Tanolis are offspring of one Raja Tanoli, son of Raja Mal. Raja Mal had five sons...Wir(Bhir), Jodh, Kahla, Tanoli, and Khaka. It is to be noted that the Tanolis do not support this theory and it is an exceptional case where a tribe recorded of Rajput decent by the Rajputs, denies such a connection.

Mir Painda Khan,
Mir Painda Khan, son of Mir Nawab Khan (who defeated the Durranis), is famed for his rebellion against Maharaja Ranjit Singh's governors of Hazara. Painda Khan "played a considerable part in the history of his time and vigorously opposed the Sikhs."
From about 1813, Mir Painda Khan spent a life long rebellion against the Sikhs. Hari Singh Nalwa, the Sikh Governor of Maharaja Ranjit Singh to Hazara, took the initiative during his governorship of setting up forts at strategic locations to keep Painda Khan in check.
Painda Khan's rebellion against the Sikh empire cost him a major portion of his kingdom, leaving only the tract around Amb, with his twin capitals Amb and Darband. This increased his resistance against the Sikh government.
In 1828 Mir Painda Khan gifted the territory of Phulra as an independent Khanate to his brother Madad Khan, which later on was recognised by the British as a semi-independent Princely State.
Painda Khan was the Nawab of Amb who took over the valley of Agror in 1834, but in I841 it was restored by the Sikhs to Ata Muhammad, a descendant of Sad-ud-din.
General Dhaurikal Singh, commanding officer of the Sikh troops in Hazara, had Painda Khan poisoned to death in September 1844. Painda Khan is still revered in Hazara as a hero.
Major J. Abbott commented that 'During the first period of Painda Khan's career, he was far too vigorous and powerful to be molested by any neighbouring tribe, and when he began to fail before the armies and purse of the Sikh Government, he was interested in keeping upon the best terms with his northern neighbours of the Black Mountains.' He is further described by him as, 'a Chief renowned on the Border, a wild and energetic man who was never subjugated by the Sikhs.'

Mir Jehandad Khan
"Of all the tribal chiefs of Hazara, the most powerful [was] said to be Jehandad Khan of the Tanoli." His territories laid on both banks of the Indus, and, as the son of Painda Khan, Jehandad Khan was particularly well respected among his peoples.
When Sikh power was on the fall in 1845 Jehandad Khan blockaded the garrisons of no less than 22 Sikh posts in Upper Tanawal ; and when they surrendered at discretion, he spared their lives, as the servants of a fallen Empire. "The act, however, stood him afterwards in good stead; for, when Hazara was assigened to Maharaja Golab Singh, that politic ruler rewarded Jehandad Khan's humanity with the jagir of Koolge and Badnuck in Lower Tannowul."
As far as Jehandad Khans hereditary domain of Upper Tanawal, with the capital at Amb is concerned, the term 'jagir' has never been applicable to it. The British Government considered Upper Tannowul as a chiefship held under the British Government, but in which, as a rule, they did not possess internal jurisdiction. The Chief managed his own people in his own way without regard to British laws, rules or system. This tenure resembled that on which the Chiefs of Patiala, Jhind, Nabha, Kapurthala and others held their lands.
In 1852, Jehandad Khan was summoned by the president of the Board of Administration (who travelled to Hazara to see the Khan) in relation to a murder enquiry of two British officers in his lands. When the president threatened the Khan to give up the murderers or suffer the consequences (of burning down the villages and giving the region to another), the Khan is said to have replied "We should consider your presence (in our kingdom) an honour, but our country is a 'rather difficult one' for your army."
This response was the talk of the day and it is remembered by many locals of Hazara even to this day as a heroic answer.
He was son of Painda Khan. When he died, he left a nine years old boy: Muhammad Akram Khan.

Nawab Sir Muhammad Akram Khan
During the tenure Nawab Sir Akram Khan (K.C.S.I)(1868 - 1907), son of Jehandad Khan, the fort at Shergarh was constructed, along with Dogah and Shahkot Forts. His rule was a peaceful time for Tanawal with no major conflicts. He was later conferred the title Nawab Bahadur by the British Raj.
Not to be confused with Muhammad Akram (1817-1852), one of the sons of Dost Mohammad Khan.

Nawab Sir Muhammad Khanizaman Khan
Nawab Khanizaman Khan, son of Akram Khan, helped the British in carrying out the Black Mountain (Kala Dhaka/Tur Ghar) expeditions.
Malik Nawab Khan Tanoli
Malik Nawab Khan, of Lower Tanawal, is commented by Major J. Abbot as a "Brave man" in his book written on Abbottabad. Malik Nawab Khan was a learned man and an able soldier. He was a strong religious man. Malik Nawab Khan was among the fellow tribesmen of famous Mir Jehandad Khan.
Tanoli Sub Tribes
The Hindwal and Pallal are the major divisions of the tribe. The further sub?divisions of the tribe are:
Jamal. Ledhyal. Bohal. Saryal. Hedral. Bhujal. Abdwal. Jalwal. Baigal. Tekral. Pansial. Labhyal(Suba Khani). Matyal. Bainkaryal. Dairal. Sadhal. Judhal. Parwal. Khan khel. Majtal and Islam khani
Tanolis Today
Most members of the Tanoli tribe reside in the former state of Amb in the Hazara Division of the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan, in the cities of Abbottabad, Haripur and its district, Mansehra, Battagram and Kohistan districts. A branch of the Tanoli tribe also resides in Kashmir, mainly in Muzaffarabad and Srinagar. Tanolis are also living in some areas of Swabi,Khalabat, Nowshera, Rawalpindi, Gujar Khan and Sultanpur. A significant number of Tanolis also living in Karachi. There are also quite a few Tanoli families residing in the city of Queeta in the Balochistan Province. They dominate the Tanawal-Sherwan belt.
The principal language of the Tanoli is Hindko. Tanolis living in Pashtun dominated areas speak Pashto.
Notable Tanolis
  • Nawabzada Salahuddin Saeed Khan Tanoli, the present Nawab of Amb, Former Federal Minister Pakistan and five times Member of the National Assembly (1985-1999)
  • Habib-ur-Rehman Tanoli, North-West Frontier Province Minister for Local Government
  • Ayub Khan Tanoli, former Minister of Law, Education and Health
  • Ashraf Khan Tanoli, Former Advocate-General of Balochistan
  • Muhammad Younis Tanoli, Advocate-General of the North-West Frontier Province
  • Malik Rabnawaz Khan Tanoli, President of the UK's Kashmir Council
  • Professor Muftee Munibur Rehman, Chairman Central Royat Hillal Committee of Pakistan
  • Feroze Khan/Sanjay Khan/Fardeen Khan of Bombay film industry. Feroze's recent death revealed that his father was a Pathan called Sadiq Ali Khan Tanoli, whose family moved to Bangalore from Ghazni province in Afghanistan.
  • Abdul Waheed Khan Tanoli, D.I.G Frontier Police, Pakistan
  • cmdBrig ilyas khan Tanoli, Drictor bahria town
  • Cmd Pir Muhammad khan tanoli late hal kalu khan

Tanoli Areas

1. Upper Tanowl
2. Lower Tanowl
Amb was a small princely state in what is today the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan. The state ceased to exist in 1969, when it was merged with the province of West Pakistan.

Amb was originally known as Tanawal and was the tribal homeland of the Tanoli people. The Nawabs of the Tanolis were best known for fighting against the Sikhs under Ranjit Singh. The Nawabs later established Amb as a princely state, ranking as a non-salute state under the British Raj. In 1947 the Nawab of Amb, Mohammad Farid Khan, acceded to Pakistan. In 1969, the state was incorporated into the North-West Frontier Province and in 1971 the royal status of the Nawab was abolished by the Government of Pakistan. The construction of the Tarbela Dam across the Indus River in the early 1970s resulted in much of Amb state being submerged by the reservoir.

Rulers of Amb
The state was ruled by a dynasty who originally held the title of Mir and in 1868 were granted the title of Nawab by the British Raj. A listing of the known rulers of Amb is provided here.

Tenure Rulers of Amb (Tanawal) 
Unknown date - 1818 (Mir) Nawab Khan
1818 - 1840 (Mir) Payenda Khan
1840 - 1868 (Nawab) Jahandad Khan
1868 - 1907 (Nawab) Mohammad Akram Khan
1907 - 26th February 1936 (Nawab) Zaman Khan
26th February 1936 - 1971 (Nawab) Mohammad Farid Khan
1971 - 1973 (Nawab) Salahuddin Khan
1973 Royal status abolished

     1. Upper Tanowl
  • Darband
  • Shere-Ghar
  • Oghi
  • Pind-kargoo Khan
  • Kripplian

2. Lower Tanowl

  • Kokal
  • Kandhala
  • Dobain
  • Janjakka
  • Khajal/Jaswalian
  • Sherwan
  • Chammad
  • Shenghree

There are numbers of book which contains information about Tanoli, but there are four books that are exclusively written on Tanoli and their background & history.
(Tanoli Tarikhi Aahina Main)

Tanolis In the Mirror of History, written by M. Ismail Khan Tanoli.


History of Tanwal, written by Muhammad Fida.

(Al-Afghan Tanoli)

Tanoli Al-Afghan, written by Ghulam Nabi.



Tanawal is a beautiful valley surrounded by the mountains and natural beauty. The TANAWAL Area basically is famous because of the TANOLI's. Tanoli's are the people and residents of the TANAWAL Area.
The Tanawal area consists of two parts:
  • Upper TANAWAL
  • Lower TANAWAL
The main city (suburb) in the Upper TANAWAL Area is Lasan Nawab. It encompasses many other villages too.
Sherwan is the main suburb in the Lower TANAWAL Area. It is located approximately 37 km away from Abbottabad City. Other villages in the Lower TANAWAL Area are Pind Kargu Khan, Khutyala, Sandu Gali, Chakuli, Hal, Bheer, Pind Gali etc.


The Tanolis (Taniwal or Tanawalis) ( تنولی ) are a prominent and famous Muslim Pashtun tribe residing mainly in Amb Hazara Division of the North-West Frontier Province Pakistan And Some Tanoli tribes still live in Gardaiz and Ghazni (both cities of Afghanistan
They claim to have migrated from a place called "Tanubal River" in Afghanistan Some Tanoli tribes still live in Gardaiz and Ghazni (both cities of Afghanistan)Tanolis came to Swat from Afghanistan after the invasions of Sultan Sabuktagin They came to form a new state. The head of the Swat state at that time was Anwar Khan Tanoli.
Contemporary Tanolis are not a singular tribe but a collection of smaller groups which consists of those who call themselves Tanolis because they have resided in an area called Tanawal and those who are sub-groups, septs or clans of different Pashtun tribes representing major Afghan khels (sub tribes) in the State of Tanawal.


The Tanolis entered the North-West Frontier Province history from the early 13th century,
Charles Allen referred to them in his book Men who made the North-West Frontier as "the extremely hostile and powerful Tanolis of the Tanawal Mountains, brave and hardy and accounted for the best swordsmen in Hazara."
The Yousafzai tribe came to Swat in approximately 1450 and began fighting with former Pushtun tribes of Afridi Tanoli Swati and Dilazak After several bloody battles between the Tanolis and the Yousafzais Tanoli Sultan Ameer Khan was martyred while fighting with Yousafzais at Topi near Swabi The Tanolis were pushed to the eastern bank of river Indus.

Tanolis migrated to the Tanawal in 1472 and defeated the Rajputs and Rajas After gaining hold in the area the Tanoli jirga appointed Zabardast Khan as the head of the state Tanawal.


Sardar Zabardast Khan/ Suba Khan Tanoli 
In AD 1752 the Tanoli Chief Sardaar Zabardast Khan allied with fellow Afghan, and King of AfghnistanAhmed Shah Abdali, in his conquest of India. His renown was such, that he gained the title of Suba Khan from Ahmed Shah Abdali for his bravery in the historical battle against the Marathas at Panipat, where two hundred and fifty thousand strong army of Marathas were famously defeated by just sixty thousand of Abdali's soldiers and allied Muslim tribes. His later grandson, Mir Nawab Khan saw the Durrani empire crumbling and defeated the Durranis, thus freeing his kingdom of their control, however, in this battle he was killed by Sardaar Azim Khan.
Mir Sar-Buland Khan 
During the Governorship of the Sikh general Hari Singh Nalwa, Mir Sar-Buland Khan Tanoli, was very rebellious towards him. He allied with Mir Painda Khan and Muhammad Khan Tareen as well as chiefs of the Pakhtun Jadun tribes against them. Whilst engaged in one battle, Hari Singh Nalwa shot dead his son Sher Muhammad Khan. He continued his rebellion regardless and unrelented in his repeat incursions against them, though without success against the militarily superior opposition. At one point, he and Mir Painda Khan besieged and conquered Darband fort from the Sikh chief Sardar Gordat Singh.
Mir Painda Khan
Mir Painda Khan is famed for his staunch rebellion against Maharaja Ranjit Singh's Governors of Hazara. He was the son of Mir Nawab Khan, who defeated the Durranis and freed his kingdom from their influence.

From about 1813, he spent a life long rebellion against the Sikhs, who, realising the potential of his rebellion, set up forts at strategic locations to keep him in check. Hari Singh Nalwa took this initiative during his governorship.
Painda Khan's relentless rebellion against the Sikh empire, cost him a major portion of his Kingdom, leaving only his twin capitals Amb and Darband. However, this deterred him less and appeared to increase his resistance against the Sikh government.
The District Gazetteer of the North-West Frontier Province (p138) confirms, "Painda Khan, played a considerable part in the history of his time and vigorously opposed the Sikhs."
Mir Painda Khan set the tone for the regional resistance against Sikh rule. Men who made the North-West Frontier (Charles Allen, Abacus 2001, p139) attests,
"There was a long history of conflict between Jehandad Khan's family and the Sikhs, and the name of his father Painda Khan, was said to be 'magic to the ears of the people of Hazara' because of the struggles he fought on behalf of his 'poor circumscribed and rugged principality' against the Sikhs. Abbot was aware that before his death Painda Khan had made his son (Jehandad Khan) swear never to trust his safety to any ruler."
Eventually, realising that the Heroic Tanoli Khan would not be subdued by force, General Dhaurikal Singh, commanding officer of the Sikh troops in Hazara, had Painda Khan poisoned to death in September 1844. He is still revered in Hazara today as a "Heroic Warrior King of the People".
In 1828 Mir Painda Khan gifted the State of Phulra to his brother Mir Madad Khan.
Mir Jehandad Khan Tanoli
This Tanoli chief deserves special mention as the son of a famous Tanoli hero of Amb Darband Hazara, Mir Painda Khan.
It is mentioned in Men who made the North-West Frontier (Charles Allen, Abacus 2001, p139) that
"Of all the tribal chiefs of Hazara, the most powerful said to be Jehandad Khan of the Tanoli, whose land straddled both banks of the Indus and whose fellow-tribesmen were 'brave and hardy and accounted for the best swordsmen in Hazara'. There was a long history of conflict between Jehandad Khan's family and the Sikhs, and the name of his father Painda Khan, was said to be 'magic to the ears of the people of Hazara' because of the struggles he fought on behalf of his 'poor circumscribed and rugged principality' against the Sikhs. Abbot was aware that before his death Painda Khan had made his son (Jehandad Khan) swear never to trust his safety to any ruler."
This was a strong testament to the physical, political power and heroic background of the House of Tanoli which continued throughout the history of the tribes ancestry.
Mir Jehandad Khan is further mentioned in the same source as,
"Jehandad Khan - a good looking young man of 26 years, tall and slender, with remarkably large and fine eyes - rode into Abbott's encampment surrounded by an escort of horsemen clad in shirts of mail and steel skull caps, handsomely mounted and equipped, who made a most picturesque display....the bystanders, who regarded the Chief with great awe, were thunderstruck.."
In 1852, Jehandad Khan was summonsed by the President of the Board of Administration (who travelled to Hazara to see the Khan) in relation to a murder enquiry of two British civilians in his lands. It is mentioned in the above source (p203,p204) that
"Jehan Dad Khan, the head of the Clan, and his minister Boostan Khan...knowing himself charged for his life, with the air of a prince sat down....answered all questions in an easy off hand way that looked very much like innocence. I was glad when the examination was over and the men let go, for they had a following of five or six hundred men, all stalwart fellows who had accompanied their Chief..."
The President ended the talk by threatening him that, "If you refuse to give up the murderers...I will come with an army to burn your villages and give your country to another." It is said that the Khan replied, folding hands and with some fun replied with his elders, "We should consider your presence (in our kingdom) an honor, but our country is a 'rather difficult one' for your army." This famed statement was the talk of the day and remembered by many locals of Hazara even to this day as a heroic answer to a staunch threat from a powerful official.
His son, Nawab Bahadur Sir Muhammed Akram Khan was conferred the title Nawab Bahadur by the British Raj.
Nawab Sir Muhammad Akram Khan 
The next chief of the Tanolis and son of Mir Jahandad Khan was Nawab Sir Akram Khan (1868 - 1907). He was a popular chief and it was during his tenure that the fort at Shergarh was constructed, along with Dogah and Thakot. His rule was a peaceful time for Tanawal with no major conflicts.
Nawab Khanizaman khan 
Nawab Khanizaman Khan succeeded his father in taking over the reins of power in Tanawal in Amb. He helped the British in carrying out the [[Black Mountain]] (Kala Dhaka/Tur Ghar)expeditions.



The Tanolis are a prominent and famous Muslim pashtoon tribe residing mainly in the district Mansehra & Abbottabad, Hazara division of NWFP Pakistan. They have a history that spans to the early 13th century since the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate. They have ruled the state of Amb of Hazara since the 13th century up until the wars with the Sikhs in the 19th century. They were frequently engaged in rebellions with successive rulers of the Delhi Sultanate as well as allying with Ahmed Shah Abdali in his conquest of India.
Charles Allen in his book referred to them as "the extremely hostile and powerful Tanolis of the Tanawal Moutains".
They were also the last ruling dynasty of the State of Amb.

"Many Mouths, Many sayings" Many people tried to link the tanoli with their own tribe or another one else. but it's clear and accepted from the history.
Tanoli are not Jungua.
Tanoli can't be Mughals.
Tanoli are not Rajas.
Tanoli are not Abbasi.
Tanoli did't come with Greek Alaxander.

Tanoli migrated from
 Tonbol Pass or Taanal Pass to the Gardeez and Ghazni (Cities of Afghanistan) in 1100 AD. In 950 AD when Sultan Amir Sabuktigin invaded on Hindustan, Tanoli tribe came with his army and resided in the valley of Swat and Buner. Anwar Khan Tanoli was appointed as head or cheif of the tribe by Sultan Amir Sabuktigin.

In 1400 Tanoli tribe was prominent alliance of Ahamed Shah Abdali, Tanoli fought the battle of Pani Pat aginst Marrata. The Cheif, Zaberdast Khan Tanoli gained the title of Suba Khan from Ahmed Shah Abdale because of his bravery and boldness in the battle of Pani Pat.

Tanoli Cheif Ameer Khan martyred in battle aginst Yousfzai trib. Yousfzai occupied the area of swat and buner and compled the tanoli tribe to the estern bank of indus river.

They established the state of Amb and ruled sice 1973. They are also Khans of many villages namly Sherwan, Khotaila, Pind Kargu Khan, Kripplian, Chaamid, Shingree, Kokal, Gaajul etc of district Manshera, Abbottabad and Haripur. Some Tanoli families are still in Swat and Mingora. Few "Khails of Tanoli" are also sattled in Balochistan, Sindh and Punjab. The genesis of tanoli leads to the Prophet Hazrat Yaqoob (Halesalam), from this reference they are pashton.




Pakistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a country in South Asia. It has a 1,046-kilometre (650 mi) coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. Tajikistan also lies very close to Pakistan but is separated by the narrow Wakhan Corridor. Strategically it is located in a position between the important regions of South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. 

The region forming modern Pakistan was the site of several ancient cultures including the neolithic Mehrgarh and the bronze era Indus Valley Civilisation. Subsequently it was the recipient of Vedic, Persian, Indo-Greek, Islamic, Turco-Mongol, and Sikh cultures through several invasions and/or settlements. As a result the area has remained a part of numerous empires and dynasties including the Persian empires, Islamic caliphates and the Mongol, Mughal, Sikh and British Empires. Pakistan gained independence from the British Empire in 1947 after a struggle for independence, led by Mr. Mohammad Ali Jinnah, that sought independent states for the Muslim majority populations of the eastern and western regions of British India. With the adoption of its constitution in 1956, Pakistan became an Islamic republic. In 1971, an armed conflict in East Pakistan resulted in the creation of Bangladesh. 

Pakistan is a federal parliamentary republic consisting of four provinces and four federal territories. With over 170 million people, it is the sixth most populous country in the world and has the second largest Muslim population after Indonesia. It is an ethnically and linguistically diverse country with a similar variation in its geography and wildlife. Since gaining independence, Pakistan's history has been characterised by periods of military rule, political instability and conflicts with neighbouring India. 

Pakistan has the seventh largest standing armed force and is the only Muslim-majority nation to POSSESS NUCLEAR WEAPONS. It is designated as a major non-NATO ally of the United States. It is a founding member of the Organization of the Islamic Conference and a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, Next Eleven economies and the G20 developing nations.
The name Pakistan means Land of (the) Pure in Urdu and Persian. It was coined in 1934 as Pakstan by Choudhary Rahmat Ali, a Pakistan movement activist, who published it in his pamphlet Now or Never. The name is a portmanteau representing the "thirty million Muslim brethern who live in PAKSTAN—by which we mean the five Northern units of India viz: Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Kashmir, Sind, and Baluchistan". 

The Indus region, which covers a considerable amount of Pakistan, was the site of several ancient cultures including the Neolithic era's Mehrgarh and the bronze era Indus Valley Civilisation (2500–1500 BCE) at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro. 
Waves of conquerors and migrants from the west—including Harappan, Indo-Aryans, Persians, Greeks, Sakas, Parthians, Kushans, Hephthalites, Afghans, Arabs, Turks and Mughals—settled in the region throughout the centuries, influencing the locals and being absorbed among them. Ancient empires of the east—such as the Nandas, Mauryas, Sungas, Guptas and the Palas—ruled these territories at different times from Patliputra. 

However, in the medieval period, while the eastern provinces of Punjab and Sindh grew aligned with Indo-Islamic civilisation, the western areas became culturally allied with the Iranian civilisation of Afghanistan and Iran. The region served as a crossroads of historic trade routes, including the Silk Road, and as a maritime entreport for the coastal trade between Mesopotamia and beyond up to Rome in the west and Malabar and beyond up to China in the east. 
Modern day Pakistan was at the heart of the Indus Valley Civilisation; that collapsed in the middle of the 2nd millennium BCE and was followed by the Vedic Civilisation, which also extended over much of the Indo-Gangetic plains. Successive ancient empires and kingdoms ruled the region: the Achaemenid Persian empire around 543 BCE, the Greek empire founded by Alexander the Great in 326 BCE and the Mauryan empire founded by Chandragupta Maurya and extended by Ashoka the Great, until 185 BCE.

The Indo-Greek Kingdom founded by Demetrius of Bactria included Gandhara and Punjab from 184 BCE, and reached its greatest extent under Menander, establishing the Greco-Buddhist period with advances in trade and culture. The city of Taxila (Takshashila) became a major centre of learning in ancient times—the remains of the city, located to the west of Islamabad, are one of the country's major archaeological sites. The Rai Dynasty (c.489–632) of Sindh, at its zenith, ruled this region and the surrounding territories. 
In 712 CE, the Arab general Muhammad Bin Qasim conquered Sindh and Multan in southern Punjab. The Pakistan Government's official chronology states that "its foundation was laid" as a result of this conquest. This Arab and Islamic victory would set the stage for several successive Muslim empires in South Asia, including the Ghaznavid Empire, the Ghorid Kingdom, the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal Empire. During this period, Sufi missionaries played a pivotal role in converting a majority of the regional Buddhist and Hindu population to Islam.

The gradual decline of the Mughal Empire in the early eighteenth century provided opportunities for the Afghans, Balochis and Sikhs to exercise control over large areas until the British East India Company gained ascendancy over South Asia. The Indian Rebellion of 1857, also known as the Sepoy Mutiny, was the region's last major armed struggle against the British Raj, and it laid the foundations for the generally unarmed freedom struggle led by the Indian National Congress in the twentieth century. In the 1920s and 1930s, a movement led by the Hindu politician Mahatma Gandhi, and displaying commitment to long enshrined Hindu tenet of ahimsa, or non-violence, engaged millions of protesters in mass campaigns of civil disobedience. 

The All India Muslim League rose to popularity in the late 1930s amid fears of under-representation and neglect of Muslims in politics. On 29 December 1930, Allama Iqbal's presidential address called for an autonomous "state in northwestern India for Indian Muslims, within the body politic of India."Quaid e Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah espoused the Two Nation Theory and led the Muslim League to adopt the Lahore Resolution of 1940, popularly known as the Pakistan Resolution. In early 1947, Britain announced the decision to end its rule in India. In June 1947, the nationalist leaders of British India—including Nehru and Abul Kalam Azad on behalf of the Congress, Jinnah representing the Muslim League, and Master Tara Singh representing the Sikhs—agreed to the proposed terms of transfer of power and independence.

The modern state of Pakistan was established on 14 August, 1947 (27 Ramadan 1366 in the Islamic Calendar), carved out of the two Muslim-majority wings in the eastern and northwestern regions of British India and comprising the provinces of Balochistan, East Bengal, the North-West Frontier Province, West Punjab and Sindh. The controversial, and ill-timed, division of the provinces of Punjab and Bengal caused communal riots across India and Pakistan—millions of Muslims moved to Pakistan and millions of Hindus and Sikhs moved to India. 

Disputes arose over several princely states including in the Muslim-majority Jammu and Kashmir, whose Hindu ruler had acceded to India following an invasion by Pashtun tribal militias, leading to the First Kashmir War in 1948. 

From 1947 to 1956, Pakistan was a Dominion of Pakistan in the Commonwealth of Nations. It became a Republic in 1956, but the civilian rule was stalled by General Ayub Khan, who was president during 1958–69, a period of internal instability and a second war with India in 1965. His successor, Yahya Khan (1969–71) had to deal with a devastating cyclone—which caused 500,000 deaths in East Pakistan—and also face a civil war in 1971. Economic grievances and political dissent in East Pakistan led to violent political tension and military repression that escalated into a civil war. After nine months of guerrilla warfare between the Pakistan Army and the Indian backed Bengali Mukti Bahini militia, Indian intervention escalated into the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, and ultimately to the secession of East Pakistan as the independent state of Bangladesh. 

Civilian rule resumed in Pakistan from 1972 to 1977 under Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, until he was deposed and later sentenced to death in 1979 by General Zia-ul-Haq, who became the country's third military president. Zia introduced the Islamic Sharia legal code, which increased religious influences on the civil service and the military. With the death of President Zia in a plane crash in 1988, Benazir Bhutto, daughter of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, was elected as the first female Prime Minister of Pakistan. Over the next decade, she fought for power with Nawaz Sharif as the country's political and economic situation Military tensions in the Kargil conflict with India were followed by a Pakistani military coup d'état in 1999 in which General Pervez Musharraf assumed vast executive powers. In 2001, Musharraf became President after the controversial resignation of Rafiq Tarar. After the 2002 parliamentary elections, Musharraf transferred executive powers to the newly elected Prime Minister Zafarullah Khan Jamali, who was succeeded in the 2004 prime-ministerial election by Shaukat Aziz. On 15 November 2007, the National Assembly, for the first time in Pakistan's history, completed its tenure and new elections were called. The exiled political leaders Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif were permitted to return to Pakistan. However, the assassination of Benazir Bhutto during the election campaign in December led to postponement of elections and nationwide riots. Bhutto's Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) won the largest number of seats in the elections held in February 2008 and its member Yousaf Raza Gillani was sworn in as Prime Minister. On 18 August 2008, Pervez Musharraf resigned from the presidency when threatened with impeachment, and was succeeded by current president Asif Ali Zardari. By the end of 2009, more than 3 million Pakistani civilians have been displaced by the on going conflict in North-West Pakistan between the government and Taliban militants. 
Government and politics

Pakistan is a democratic parliamentary federal republic with Islam as the state religion. The first Constitution of Pakistan was adopted in 1956, but was suspended in 1958 by General Ayub Khan. The Constitution of 1973—suspended in 1977, by Zia-ul-Haq, but re-instated in 1985 —is the country's most important document, laying the foundations of the current government. 

The bicameral legislature comprises a 100-member Senate and a 342-member National Assembly. The President is the Head of state and the Commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces and is elected by an electoral college. The Prime Minister is usually the leader of the largest party in the National Assembly. Each province has a similar system of government with a directly elected Provincial Assembly in which the leader of the largest party or alliance becomes Chief Minister. Provincial Governors are appointed by the President. 

Pakistan is an active member of the United Nations (UN) and the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC), the latter of which Pakistan has used as a forum for Enlightened Moderation, a plan to promote a renaissance and enlightenment in the Muslim world. Pakistan is also a member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Economic Cooperation Organisation (ECO). In the past, Pakistan has had mixed relations with the United States; in the early 1950s, Pakistan was the United States' "most allied ally in Asia" and a member of both the Central Treaty Organisation (CENTO) and the Southeast Asia Treaty Organisation (SEATO).

During the Soviet-Afghan War in the 1980s, Pakistan was a major U.S. ally. But relations soured in the 1990s, when sanctions were imposed by the U.S. over Pakistan's refusal to abandon its nuclear activities. However, the American War on Terrorism, as an aftermath of 11 September 2001 attacks in New York, led to an improvement in US–Pakistan ties. Its positive side was evidenced by a major increase in American military aid, providing Pakistan $4 billion more in three years after the 9/11 attacks than before. On the other hand, Pakistan is presently burdened with nearly 3 million displaced civilians due to the ongoing Afghan war. As of 2004, in contexts of the War on Terror, Pakistan was being referred to as part of the Greater Middle East by the US under the Bush administration. 
On 18 February 2008, Pakistan held its general elections after Benazir Bhutto's assassination postponed the original date of 8 January 2008. The Pakistan Peoples Party won the majority of the votes and formed an alliance with the Pakistan Muslim League (N). They nominated and elected Yousaf Raza Gilani as Prime Minister. On 18 August 2008, Pervez Musharraf resigned as President of Pakistan amidst increasing calls for his impeachment. In the presidential election that followed, Asif Ali Zardari of Pakistan People's Party won a landslide majority and became President of Pakistan. 

Administrative units Pakistan is a federation of four provinces, a capital territory and a group of federally administered tribal areas. The government of Pakistan exercises de facto jurisdiction over the western parts of the disputed Kashmir region, organized as two separate political entities; Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan.
Prior to 2001, the sub-provincial tier of government was composed of 26 divisions with two further tiers (districts and tehsils) administered directly from the provincial level. The divisions were abolished in 2001 and a new three-tiered system of local government came into effect comprising districts, tehsils and union councils with an elected body at each tier.
There are currently 113 Districts in Pakistan-proper, each with several Tehsils and Union Councils. The tribal areas comprise seven tribal agencies and six small frontier regions detached from neighboring districts whilst Azad Kashmir comprises ten and Gilgit-Baltistan seven Districts respectively.

Military The armed forces of Pakistan are the seventh-largest in the world. The three main services are the Army, Navy and the Air Force, supported by a number of paramilitary forces which carry out internal security roles and border patrols. The National Command Authority is responsible for exercising employment and development control of all strategic nuclear forces and organisations, and for Pakistan's nuclear doctrine.
The Pakistan Army came into existence after independence in 1947 and is currently headed by General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani. The Pakistan Army is a professional fighting force. It has an active force of 612,000 personnel and 513,000 men in reserve. Conscription may be introduced in times of emergency, but it has never been imposed. 

Since independence, the Army has been involved in four wars with neighbouring India and several border skirmishes with Afghanistan. It maintained division and brigade strength presences in some of the Arab countries during the past Arab–Israeli Wars, and aided the Coalition in the first Gulf War. Other major operations undertaken by the Army include Operation Black Thunderstorm and Operation Rah-e-Nijat. Apart from conflicts, the Army has been an active participant in United Nations peacekeeping missions and played a major role in rescuing trapped American soldiers from Mogadishu, Somalia in 1993 in Operation Gothic Serpent.
The Pakistan military first saw combat in the First Kashmir War, gaining control of what is now Azad Kashmir. In 1961, the army repelled a major Afghan incursion on Pakistan's western border. Pakistan and India were at war again in 1965 and in 1971. In 1973, the military quelled a Baloch nationalist uprising.

In the past, Pakistani personnel have volunteered to serve alongside Arab forces in conflicts with Israel. During the Six-Day War in 1967 and Yom Kippur War in October 1973 PAF pilots volunteered to go to the Middle East to support Egypt and Syria in a state of war against Israel, Air Force pilots shot down ten Israeli planes in the Six-Day War. During the Yom Kippur War 16 PAF pilots volunteered to leave for the Middle East in order to support Egypt and Syria but by the time they arrived Egypt had already agreed on a cease-fire. 

During the Soviet–Afghan war, Pakistan shot down several intruding pro-Soviet Afghan aircraft and provided covert support to the Afghan mujahideen through the Inter-Services Intelligence agency. In 1999, Pakistan was involved in the Kargil conflict with India. Currently, the military is engaged in an armed conflict with extremist Islamic militants in the north-west of the country.

Since 2004, Pakistani armed forces are engaged in fighting against Taliban groups. Militant groups have engaged in suicide bombings in Pakistani cities, killing more than 3,000 civilians and armed personnels in 2009 alone. 

Internationally the Pakistani armed forces contributed to United Nations peacekeeping efforts, with more than 10,700 personnel deployed in 2009, and are presently the largest contributor. Pakistan provided a military contingent to the UN-backed coalition in the first Gulf War. The Pakistani troops were rushed to Makkah on Saudi Government's request and Pakistani SSG commandos lead the operation of the Grand Mosque Seizure.

Geography and climate Pakistan covers an area of 796,095 km2 (307,374 sq mi), approximately equaling the combined land areas of France and the United Kingdom. It is the 36th largest nation by total area although this ranking varies depending on how the disputed territory of Kashmir is counted. Apart from the 1,046 km (650 mi) coastline along the Arabian Sea, Pakistan's land borders a total of 6,774 km (4,209 mi)—2,430 km (1,510 mi) with Afghanistan, 523 km (325 mi) with China, 2,912 km (1,809 mi) with India and 909 km (565 mi) with Iran. 
Geologically, Pakistan overlaps with the Indian tectonic plate in its Sindh and Punjab provinces, while Balochistan and most of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa lie within the Eurasian plate which mainly comprises the Iranian plateau. Gilgit-Baltistan and Azad Kashmir lie mainly in Central Asia along the edge of the Indian plate and are hence prone to violent earthquakes.

The geography of Pakistan is a blend of landscapes varying from plains to deserts, forests, hills, and plateaus ranging from the coastal areas of the Arabian Sea in the south to the mountains of the Karakoram range in the north. Pakistan is divided into three major geographic areas: the northern highlands; the Indus River plain; and the Balochistan Plateau. The northern highlands of Pakistan contain the Karakoram, Hindu Kush and Pamir mountain ranges, which incorporate some of the world's highest peaks, including K2 (8,611 m/28,251 ft) and Nanga Parbat (8,126 m/26,660 ft). The Balochistan Plateau lies to the West, and the Thar Desert in the East. An expanse of alluvial plains lies in Punjab and Sindh along the Indus river. The 1,609 km (1,000 mi) Indus River and its tributaries flow through the country from the Kashmir region to the Arabian Sea. 

Pakistan's climate varies from tropical to temperate with arid conditions existing in the coastal south, characterized by a monsoon season with adequate rainfall and a dry season with lesser rainfall. There are four distinct seasons; a cool, dry winter from December through February; a hot, dry spring from March through May; the summer rainy season or southwest monsoon period, from June through September; and the retreating monsoon period of October and November. Rainfall can vary radically from year to year, and successive patterns of flooding and drought are common. 
Flora and fauna The diversity of landscapes and climates in Pakistan allows for a wide variety of trees and plants to flourish in this region. The forests range from coniferous alpine and subalpine trees such as spruce, pine, and deodar cedar in the northern mountains to deciduous trees such as the mulberry-type Shisham in the Sulaiman range in the south. The western hills are home to juniper and tamarisk as well as coarse grasses and scrub plants. Mangrove forests form much of the coastal wetlands along the coast in the south. 
Coniferous forests in most of the northern and north-western highlands are found at altitudes ranging from 1,000m to 4,000m. In the xeric regions of Balochistan, date palms and ephedra are common floral varieties. In most of Punjab and Sindh, the Indus plains support tropical and subtropical dry and moist broadleaf forestry as well as tropical and xeric shrublands. These forests are mostly mulberry, acacia, and Eucalyptus.
According to statistics, 2.5% or about 1,902,000 hectares (19,020 km2) of Pakistan was forested in 2000. 
Similar to the vegetation, the animal life in Pakistan reflects the varied climatic regions of the land. The southern plains are home to crocodiles in the Indus while boars, deers, porcupines, and small rodents are found more commonly in the surrounding areas. The sandy scrublands of central Pakistan are home to a jackals, hyenas, wild cats, panthers, and leopards.

In the north, a wide variety of animals have found home in the mountainous regions including the Marco Polo sheep, Urial sheep, Markhor and Ibex goats, black and brown Himalayan bears, and the rare Snow Leopard. Another rare species is the blind Indus River Dolphin of which there are believed to be about 1,100 remaining, protected at the Indus River Dolphin Reserve in Sindh. There have been sightings of the rare Asiatic cheetahs in the southwestern deserts of Sindh and Balochistan.

Apart from crows, sparrows and myna, hawks, falcons, and eagles are the more commonly found birds in Pakistan. A lot of birds sighted within Pakistan are migratory as they make their way from Europe, Central Asia and India. 
The lack of vegetative cover, severity of climatic conditions, and the impact of grazing animals on the deserts have left wild animals in a precarious position. Chinkara is the only animal that can still be found in significant numbers in Cholistan. The blackbuck, once plentiful in Cholistan, has now been eliminated; efforts are being made to reintroduce them into the country. A small number of blue bulls are found along the Pakistan-Indian border, and in some parts of Cholistan. Grey partridge, species of sand grouseand the Indian courser are the main birds of the area. Peafowl occur in some areas in Cholistan. 


Quick History of Pakistan

3000 - 1500 BC

     Indus Civilization.
1700 BC
    Aryans invade from Central Asia.
516 BC
    Northern Pakistan becomes the easternmost province of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia.
327 - 325 BC
    Alexander the Great invades Pakistan.
272 - 236 BC

    Mauryan Emperor Ashoka promotes Buddhism.
185 BC

    Bactrian Greeks conquer northwest Pakistan.
75 BC

    Arrival of Scythians (Sakas) from Central Asia.
20 AD

    Parthians conquer northern Pakistan.
60 AD

    Kushans from Central Asia overthrow the Parthians.
3rd Century

    Kushans decline and are dominated by the Sassanian Empire of Persia
4th Century

    Kidar (Little) Kushans come to power.

    White Huns invade Gandhara and are converted to Hinduism, possibly as the Rajput warrior caste.

    Sassanians and Turks overthrow Huns.
Late 6th - 7th Century

    Turki Shahis control area west of Indus, including Gandhara.

    Mohammad Bin Qasim conquers Sindh and southern Punjab

    Hindu Shahis arrive from Central Asia
1001 - 26

    Mahmud of Ghaznavi invades. Mass conversions to Islam.
1034 -1337

    Sindh ruled by Sumrahs, a Sindhi tribe

    Mohammad Ghuri destroys the Kingdome of Mahmud Ghaznavi.

    Mohammad Ghuri makes Delhi the capital of the empire
1206 - 1526 Delhi Sultanate

    Delhi Sultanate established by Ilbari Dynasty At the time of Muhammd Ghuri's death in 1206 (had no sons), Qutbuddin Aibak was in Lahore, where he assumed the sovereign powers as he was elected Sultan by the Amirs. The assumption of sovereign powers by Qutbuddin Aibak in 1206 is regarded as the foundation of the Sultanate Delhi.

    The Mongol, Genghiz Khan invades Punjab
1290-1320 Khalji Dynasty
    Marks the end of the Turks rule. Among the Khaljis, Alauddin Khalji (1296-1316) reign is known for revenue reforms, market regulations and conquests.
1320-1412 Tuqhluq Dynasty
    Tuqhluq were from 'Qarauna Turk' tribe. Sultan Ghiyasuddin Tughluq Shah (Ghazi Malik) founder of third dynasty of the Sultanate. Among the Tughluq dynastry, Mohammad Tughluq and Firuz Tughluq are most popular.

    Sammah Rajputs overthrow the Sumrahs in Sindh

    Tamerlane invades from Central Asia
1414-51 The Saiyids
    Khizr Khan was the founder of the Saiyid dynasty. Alauddin Alam Shah was the last ruler.
1451-1526 The Lodhis
    Lodhis were Afghans Bahlol Lodhi was the founder of this dynasty. The last Lodhi Sultan, Ibrahim Ladhi (1517-26) was killed by Babur in the first battle of Panipat.
    The Sultanate of Delhi ended. Babur defeats the Lodis, the last of the Delhi sultans, and establishes the Mughal Empire. Tarkhans capture power in Sindh.

    Babur, first Mughal emperor, rais Punjab Sindh conquered by Shah Beg Arghun from Kandahar. Amir Chakar Rind unites Balochi tribes and defeats Sammahs.
1527 - 1857 The Mughal Empire
    Zahiruddin Mohammad Babur son of Umar Shaikh Mirza -- The first Mughal Emeror (1526-30) and founder of  the Mughal empire in India. March 16 -- A decisive battle took place with Rana Songa of Mewar, a powerful Rajput prince. Babur's autobiography Tuzuk-i-Bauri (Babur Namah) written in Turki.
    December 26 -- Babur died in Agra. Humyun become the Mughal emperor. Humayun reign 1530, 40, 1555-6.
    Suri Dynasty (1540-55) Sher Shah Suri defeated Humayun in the battles of Chausa and Kanauj and became the emperor. Humayun is forced into exile in Persia by Sher Shah Suri.

    Death of Sher Shah Suri.
    Humayun regains empire.

    Akbar, son of Humayun, is emperor (1556-1605) Humayun died after falling from his library (Sher Mandil) stairs. Thirteen years old Humayun's son Akbar becomes the emperor. Akbar is famous for his liberal policies especially towards non-Muslims. Akbar contributed greatly in Indian music. Tansen was the most accomplished musician of that days.
    Jahangir is emperor (1605-27) After Akbar, his son Salim becomes emperor. Salim took the title of Jehagir (Conqueror of the world). Jehangir's reign consider be the peak of Mughal rule (and his son's reign).
    Sha Jahan is emperor (1627-59) After Jehangir, his son Khurram becomes the empror of Mughal emperor. Khurram took the title of Shah Jehan (Emperor of the World) The Mughal Empire was at its zenith during Shah Jehan's rule.
    Queen Elizabeth I dispatched the ship Tyger to the sub-continent to exploit opportunities for trade.
    The British East India Company opens its first office in Bombay.
    Aurangzeb Alamgir is emperor (1658-1707). Sikhs organize as a warrior sect.
    Aurangzeb Alamgir died. His death regards as the beginning of the end of Mughal empires. Aurangzeb Alamgir's son bahadur Shah Zafar becomes the last emperor of Mughal dynastry.

    Founding of Kalhora Dynasty in Sindh

    Nadir Shah of Persia invades the subcontinent.

    Ahmad Shah Durrani founds the Kingdom of Afghanistan and acquires Indus territories, Punjab and Kashmir.
    The battle of Plassey is considered a major breakthrough for the Britishers in the Subcontinent.
1707 - 1762
    Shah wali Ullah's Reform Movement.

    Sikhs become dominate force in Pubjab.
    Talpur Balochis overthrow Kalhora Dynazty in Sindh
    Ranjit Singh rules Punjab from Lahore.
    Faraizi Movement (1830-57)

    British annex Sindh. First British-Afghan War
    First British-Sikh War
    The British defeat the Sikhs in Second Sikh War, annex Punjab and NWFP

    First War of Independence (Mutiny)

    British government assumes direct rule of British East India Company lands, establishes British Raj Aligarh Movement (1858-98)
    Deoband Movement (1866-1947)
    Anjuman Himayat-i-Islam, Lahore (1884-1947)
    Establishment of Indian National Congress
    All districts of Balochistan in British hands
    British establish Gilgit Agency
    British conquer Hunza and Nagar
    Nadva-tul-'Ulama of Lucknow (1894-1947)
    December 30 -- The annual meeting of Mohammadan Educational Conference held at Dacca under the chairmanship of Nawab Viqar ul Mulk. In the meeting Nawab Salim ullah Khan presented a proposal to establish a political party, All India Muslim League, to safeguard the interests of the Muslims. All India Muslim League founded as forum for Indian Muslim separatism
    The Lucknow Pact
    The Khilafat Movement (1919-1924)

    Mohammad Iqbal proposes creation of separate Muslim state

    Lahore Resolution, which endorses idea of separate nation for India's Muslims, to be called Pakistan.
    June 3 -- the British Government accepted the idea of partition of India. July 18 -- The British Parliament passes the Indian Independence Act. July 19 -- Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan (1895-1951) of Muslim League becomes the first Prime Minister.  August 14 -- Birth of Pakistan, consisting of East Bengal, a part of Assam (Sylhet), West Punjab, Sind, NWFP and Baluchistan. Some 15 million people flee religious persecution, Muslim fleeing to East and West Pakistan, while Hindus flee to India. An estimated one million people are killed in widespread communal violence and millions are made homeless. Under Section 8 of the Indian Independence Act, 1947, the Government of India Act, 1935 (with certain adaptations) becomes constitution of Pakistan. August 15 -- Quid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948) of Muslim League becomes first governor-general  and Liaquat Ali Khan(1895-1951) of Muslim League becomes the first Prime Minister of the new nation.
    September 11 --  Quid-e-Azam  Dies and Kashmir Crisis Starts. September 14 --  Cheif Minister of Bengal Khwaja Nazimuddin (1894-1964) of Muslim League becomes second governor-general. The first war with India over Kashmir
    March 12 -- Objectives Resolution passes moved by Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan.
    October 16 --  Liaquat Ali Khan assassinated in Rawalpindi. October 17 -- Finance Minister Ghulam Mohammad (1895-1956) of Muslim League becomes the third Governor General. Governor General Khawaja Nazimuddin of Muslim League becomes second Prime Minister.
    December 22 -- The second draft of the Basic Principle Committee presents to the Constituent Assembly.
    April 17 -- Malik Ghulam Mohammad dismisses the Khawaja Nazimuddin. (Important note: This is this act of Ghulam Mohammad that sets an unhealthy tradition and precedent in Pakistan of Presidents removing ELECTED governments. This tradition is later carried on by various Presidents creating a continuous instability in the Pakistan.) April 17 -- A not well-known leader of East Pakistan Mohammad Ali Bogra (1909-1963 ) of Muslim League, who was then Pakistani Ambassador to United State, becomes third Prime Minister.
    May 1954 -- Governor General Ghulam Mohammad appointed Iskander Mirza (1899-1969) as Governor of East Pakistan. In order to established the peace in East Pakistan, the first step he took as Governor was to order the arrest of 319 persons, including Mujib al Rahman and Yusuf Ali Choudhury. By mid June, the number of persons arrested had reached 1051, including 33 assembly members and two Dhaka University Professors. So, in a way Iskander Mirza had sown a permanent seed of hatred for the Central government in the heats of East Pakistani people. October 24 -- Malik Ghulam Mohammad dissolved the Constituent Assembly of Mohammad Ali Bogra and declares a state of emergency. Pakistan signed an agreement with the U.S. saying that US will come to Pakistan's aid in a time of war.
    August 11 -- Bogra resigns and  Chaudhary Mohammad Ali (1905-1963) of Muslim League becomes appointed forth Prime Minister. October 6 -- Governor-General Ghulam Mohammad resigns. October 6 -- Iskander Mirza (1899-1969) of Military becomes the fourth and last Governor General.
    March 23 -- Constitution take on and proclaims Pakistan an Islamic republic. The Constitution consisted of 234 articles, which divided into 13 parts and 6 schedules. The National Assembly (the only house of the parliament) was consists of 300 members. The 300 hundred National Assembly seats were equally divided between West Pakistan and East Pakistan (note that the concept of one unit was there in constitution.). March 23 -- Iskander Mirza of Republican Party becomes first president. September 12 -- Chaudhry Mohammad Ali resigns and after the adoption of the constitution, Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy (1893-1963)  of Awami League becomes the fifth Prime Minister.
    October 17  -- Suhrawardy resigns, due to President's refusal to convene a meeting of the parliament to seek a vote of confidence. October 17 -- The Law Minister in the Federal Cabinet Ibrahim Ismail Chundrigar (1897-1960) of Muslim League becomes sixth Prime Minister. December 11 -- I. I. Chundrigar was Forced to resign since he failed to maintain the support of his coalition partners and thus becomes the only Prime Minister of Pakistan for less than two months. December 16 -- Malik Feroze Khan Noon (1893-1970) of Republican Party takes over the office of Prime Minister and becomes the seventh prime minister. 
    October 7 -- President Iskander Mirza abrogates Constitution and with the help of Gen. Ayub Khan, the Chief Martial Law Administrator, enforces the first martial law as a response to rebellions in East Pakistan. Military coup -- Chief of the army staff takes over and declares martial law. October 24 -- Gen. Mohammad Ayub Khan (1907-1974) of Military becomes eighth Prime Minister and resign from the office of chief martial law administrator. October 27 -- Iskander Mirza's Presidency ends and sent into exile. October 27 --  Gen. (Mohammad Ayub Khan)  of Military assumes presidency and becomes second president. October 28 -- Ayub Khan resigns from prime ministership.
    Constitution Adopted (second time). Gen. Mohammad Ayub Khan of Military becomes president.
    August -- Second war between India and Pakistan over Kashmir
    January 10 -- Gen Ayub Khan and Indian prime minister Lal Bahadur Shastri signed the cease-fire agreement in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, USSR. The cease-fire agreement led to the resigning of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, Ayub Khan's talented Minister of Foreign Affairs.
    March 25 -- Ayub Khan handed his place over to Agha Mohammad Yahya Khan (1907-1980), who promised return to civilian rule. He is the first chief martial law administrator (March 25, 1969 through March 31, 1969). Martial law declared by military chief Agha Mohammad Yahya Khan. March 25 -- Gen. Agha Mohammad Yahya Khan of Military takes over and becomes the third president. March 27 -- Gen Ayub Khan resigns from office of Prime Minister.
    First general elections. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman's Awami League acquires absolute majority in new National Assembly. West Pakistan-dominated government headed by military chief Yahya Khan Declines to assemble assembly.
    East Pakistan attempts to break away. Civil war begins in East Pakistan. East Pakistan declares itself independent nation and becomes Bangladesh. India intervenes on behalf of Bengali separatists. Pakistani military surrenders to Indian armed forces. December 7 -- Nurul Amin (1893-1974) of Pakistan People's Party becomes ninth prime minister. December 20 -- Nurul Amin resigns. December 20 -- President (military chief) Yahya Khan resigns. December 20 -- Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto (1928-1979) of Pakistan Peoples Party becomes fourth president of Pakistan.
    President Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto  and India's Prime Minister Indira Gandhi sign Simla agreement that adjusts cease-fire line between Pakistan and India and creates new Line of Control.
    New constitution goes into effect (Third time). August 13 -- Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto   resigns from presidency. August 14 -- Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto of Pakistan People's Party becomes tenth prime minister. August 14 -- Fazal Elahi Chaudhry (1904-1982) of Pakistan People's Party becomes fifth President.
    May - India tests its first nuclear device at nation's nuclear testing grounds near Pokhran in southeastern India.  Prime Minister Z. A. Bhutto's government begins nuclear program.
    Diplomatic ties established between Pakistan and Bangladesh.
    Riots erupt over allegations of rigging of general election by Pakistan Peoples Party.  Gen. Mohammad Zia ul-Haq  (1924-1988) of Military declares martial law. July 5 -- Gen. Zia ul-Haq of Military becomes eleventh prime minister.
    September 16 -- President Fazal Elahi Chaudhry resigns September 16 -- Gen.  Zia ul-Haq of Military becomes sixth president.
    Islamic penal code introduced. Gen. and president Zia ul-Haq of Military hangs First elected Prime Minister of Pakistan Z. A. Bhutto.
         United State pledges military assistance following Soviet Union intervention in Afghanistan.
    Gen. and president Zia announces that he will lift the martial law but military will retain the key role in future governments.
    Martial law and ban on political parties lifted. General elections held under military rule. Controversial eighth Amendment is passes. March 24 -- Military chief Zia-ul Haq resigns from prime ministership and Mohammad Khan Junejo (1932-1993) of Pakistan Muslim League become twelfth prime minister. Gen.  Zia ul-Haq of Military President.  
         Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto's daughter Benazir Bhotto (born: 1953) returns from exile to lead PPP in campaign for elections.
    May 29 -- Military chief (president) Zia dismisses Prime Minister Mohammad Khan Junejo's government. June 9 -- Gen. and president Zia becomes thirteenth prime minister. Military chief , president and prime minister  Zia orders new elections. August 17 -- Military chief ,president and prime minister Zia, the US ambassador and top Pakistan army officials die in mysterious plane crash. August 17 -- Ghulam Ishaq Khan (born: 1915) becomes seventh President. (Acting president to Dec. 12, 1988.) Benazir Bhotto's Pakistan People's Party wins November general election. Benazir Bhutto, the eldest child of Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto  sworn in as first woman Prime Minister of a Muslim nation. She becomes fourteenth prime minister. December 14 -- Ghulam Ishaq Khan Khan becomes seventh President.  
    May -- India test fires its Agni missile, ballistic missile that can be able to deliver a nuclear warhead to any target in Pakistan or southern China.
    August 6 -- Benazir Bhutto's government dismissed on charges of incompetence and corruption. August 6 -- Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi (born: 1931) of National People's Party becomes fifteenth Prime Minister (caretaker). In National election, Benazir Bhutto's PPP lost to coalition of rightist parties. November 6 -- Jotoi resigns and Mian Nawaz Sharif (born: 1949) of Pakistan Muslim League (Nawaz group) becomes sixteenth prime minister.
    Islamic Shariah law formally incorporated into legal code.
    Nawaz Sharif's government launches campaign to stamp out violence by supporter of Mohajir Quami Movement (MQM).
    April 19 -- President Ishaq Khan dissolves the National and Provincial Assemblies. April 18 -- Ishaq Khan selects Mir Balakh Sher Mazari of Pakistan Muslim League (Nawaz group) as the seventeenth Prime Minister (caretaker). May 26 -- Mazari’s tenure as a caretaker Prime Minister ended in May, when the Supreme Court of Pakistan invalidates the presidential order on May 26 and reinstated Mian Mohammad Nawaz Sharif as the Prime Minister. Nawaz Sharif becomes eighteenth prime minister.  July 18 -- the President, Ghulam Ishaq and the Prime Minister, Mian Nawaz Sharif both resign under pressure from military, thus dissolving all the Central and provincial Assemblies. July 18 -- Wasim Sajjad (born: 1941) of Pakistan Muslim League (Nawaz Group) selected as eight President (interim). July 18 -- Moin Qureshi (born: 1930)selected as nineteenth Prime Minister (caretaker). On October 6th and 9th General Elections were held. Octorber 19 -- Benazir Bhutto (born: 1953) wins slim margin and took oath as Prime Minister. She becomes twenth prime minister. On November 13, Presidential election was held. Sardar Farooq Ahmad Khan Leghari (born: 1940) of Pakistan People's Party candidate won by 274 to 168 votes against, the then acting President Wasim Sajjad. November 14 -- Wasim Sajjad resign and Farooq Ahmed Khan Leghari of Pakistan Peoples Party elected as eighth President.
    November 5 -- President Farooq Leghari dismisses Benazir Bhutto accuses her government of corruption and nepotism under the Article 58(2) b of the Eighth Amendment. November 5 -- Miraj Khalid (born: 1916) becomes twenty first prime minister (caretaker).
    Queen Elizabeth II visits Pakistan on 50th Anniversary of its Independence. Former Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto, right, meets Britain's Queen Elizabeth II at the presidential palace in Islamabad, Pakistan. Malik Meraj Khalid selected as Caretaker Prime Minister. On February, National elections held. February 17 -- Mian Mohammad Nawaz Sharif becomes twenty second Prime Minister. February 18 -- Nawaz Sharif  obtained a vote of confidence from the National Assembly on February 18. Controversial Eighth Amendment is repealed, which empowered the president to dismiss the prime ministers. Passing Thirteenth Am Amendment and the Ehtesab Act, 1997. December 2 --Because of constitutional crisis, President Farooq Leghari  resigned on December 2. December 2 -- Wasim Sajjad of PML-N becomes tenth President (interim) (second time).
    January 1 -- Wasim Sajjad resigns and  Mohammad Rafiq Tarar (born: 1929) of PML-N becomes eleventh  President.   May 28-29 -- Pakistan carried out its nuclear tests in response to Indian detonation of its three nuclear devices and becomes a Nuclear Power. Nawaz Sharif's government proclaims an emergency on May 28, because of this, all fundamental rights of Pakistani people were suspended and all the foreign currency accounts in Pakistani banks were frozen. A Ghauri missile (a modified SCVD ballistic missile similar to India's Agni ballistic missile). Nawaz Sharif introduces the Fifteen Amendment on October 9. The Fifteen Amendment, which is an effort by Sharif  to acquire more powers, soon brought him into serious confrontation with military. This confrontation led to the resignation of General Jehangir Karamat on October 7. Mohammad Rafiq Tarar (born: 1929) becomes an eleventh President.
    Feburary 20 -- Indian prime Minister Vajayeee visits Pakistan. In April, Benazir Bhutto and her husband convicted of corruption and given jail sentences. April 11 -- India test an upgraded version of Agni missile on Wheeler Island in the Bay of Bengal. The Kargil Offensive. The Kargil crisis in its aftermath led to tense relationship between Nawaz Sharif and the military. It was this tense relationship, which culminated in the removal of the Nawaz government by successor of General Karamat (Musharraf ). October 12 --  Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif overthrown in military coup led by military chief Pervez Musharraf (born: 1943), thus Military Comes to Power Again. Pakistan is suspended from Commonweath due to widely condemned military coup. October 12 --  military chief Musharraf becomes the Chief Executive of Pakistan. October 14 -- military chief and chief executive becomes twenty third prime minister.
    In April, Nawaz Sharif sentenced to life imprisonment on hijacking and terrorism charges. In December, Nawaz Sharif goes into exile in Saudi Arabia after being pardoned by military authorities.
    Agra Summit. US Military invasion in Afghanistan. June 20 --  Gen.  Pervez Musharraf (born: 1943) of Military dissolved the parliament as a result the figurehead president, Rafiq Tarar vacated his position. Later in the day Gen Pervez Musharraf names himself president while remaining head of the military. He becomes twelfth the President. US Military invasion in Afghanistan. July, Gen Musharraf meets Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee in Agra summit. Talks fails (not even a joint statement). September - Pakistan cut its diplomatic relation with the Taliban and becomes a major ally to U.S. campaign against the Taliban and al-Qaida. US lifts some sanctions imposed after Pakistan's nuclear tests, but retains those imposed after Musharraf's coup.
    January - Gen. Musharraf announces that elections will be held on October 2002. April - Gen. Musharraf of Military wins another five years in office in a referendum criticized as unconstitutional and fraught with irregularities. May - Pakistani military fires three medium-range surface-to-surface missiles that can carry nuclear warheads. August - President Musharraf of Military grants himself sweeping new powers, including the right to dismiss an elected parliament. Opposition parties accuse Musharraf of perpetuating dictatorship. October - General election results in a hung parliament. November 23 - National Assembly "selects" Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali (born: 1944) of Pakistan Muslim League (Quaid-e-Azam Group), a member of a party close to Gen Musharraf of Military, as a twenty fourth prime minister and Musharraf resigns from prime ministership.